Sep 3, 3: Sid Meier's Civilization series More Less. Communities Contact Support. Sign in. Browse Search. Ask a question. User profile for user: Glass City Glass City. Sid Meier's Civilization series Can I play all sid meier's games on my imac. More Less. Question marked as Solved User profile for user: Kenichi Watanabe Kenichi Watanabe.
Mac OS X Speciality level out of ten: You can download the demo of Civ4 http: As long as your Intel Mac does not have the Intel integrated graphics, it should run fine. Civ3 is a PowerPC-based app. However, it should run on an Intel Mac through Rosetta. It's graphics hardware requirements are much much less.
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View answer in context. Helpful answers Drop Down menu. If you are running an intel iMac. I would max out your RAM too as it will greatly increase the speed of the games too. Message was edited by: If you don't already have an installation of Alpha Centauri, you cannot use the Carbon version of the game. The early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1. Renaissance — The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
It started as a movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe. This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science, Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, the Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, the word Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth in French, first appeared in English in the s. The word also occurs in Jules Michelets work, Histoire de France, the word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period.
Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism, however, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Others see more competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance.
Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand, Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia, silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money. Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa, unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe.
One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity, Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.
Space colonization — Space colonization is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth. Many arguments have been made for and against space colonization, no space colonies have been built so far.
Currently, the building of a colony would present a set of huge technological. Space settlements would have to provide for all the material needs of hundreds or thousands of humans. They would involve technologies, such as controlled ecological life support systems and they would also have to deal with the as-yet unknown issue of how humans would behave and thrive in such places long-term. Because of the present cost of sending anything from the surface of the Earth into orbit a space colony would currently be an expensive project.
There are yet no plans for building space colonies by any large-scale organization, however, many proposals, speculations, and designs for space settlements have been made through the years, and a considerable number of space colonization advocates and groups are active. Several famous scientists, such as Freeman Dyson, have come out in favor of space settlement, on the technological front, there is ongoing progress in making access to space cheaper and in creating automated manufacturing and construction techniques.
The primary argument calling for space colonization is the survival of human civilization. By developing alternative locations off Earth, the species, including humans. On two occasions, theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking has argued for space colonization as a means of saving humanity, in , Hawking predicted that the human race would become extinct within the next thousand years, unless colonies could be established in space. The goal isnt just scientific exploration and its also about extending the range of human habitat out from Earth into the solar system as we go forward in time.
In the long run a single-planet species will not survive, if we humans want to survive for hundreds of thousands or millions of years, we must ultimately populate other planets. Now, today the technology is such that this is barely conceivable, were in the infancy of it.
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Im talking about one day, I dont know when that day is. We may well have people living on the Moon and we may have people living on the moons of Jupiter and other planets. We may have people making habitats on asteroids, I know that humans will colonize the solar system and one day go beyond. Outer space — Outer space or just space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including Earth. The baseline temperature, as set by the radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.
Data indicates that the majority of the mass-energy in the universe is a poorly understood vacuum energy of space which astronomers label dark energy. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the Universe, there is no firm boundary where outer space starts. The framework for international law was established by the Outer Space Treaty. This treaty precludes any claims of sovereignty and permits all states to freely explore outer space.
Despite the drafting of UN resolutions for the uses of outer space. Humans began the exploration of space during the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights. Earth orbit was first achieved by Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union in , due to the high cost of getting into space, manned spaceflight has been limited to low Earth orbit and the Moon. Outer space represents an environment for human exploration because of the dual hazards of vacuum. Microgravity also has an effect on human physiology that causes both muscle atrophy and bone loss. In addition to health and environmental issues, the economic cost of putting objects, including humans.
In BCE, Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that nature abhors a vacuum and this concept built upon a 5th-century BCE ontological argument by the Greek philosopher Parmenides, who denied the possible existence of a void in space. Based on this idea that a vacuum could not exist, in the West it was held for many centuries that space could not be empty. Atmospheric entry — Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite. Technologies and procedures allowing the atmospheric entry, descent and landing of spacecraft are collectively abbreviated as EDL.
Atmospheric drag and aerodynamic heating can cause atmospheric breakup capable of completely disintegrating smaller objects and these forces may cause objects with lower compressive strength to explode. Manned space vehicles must be slowed to subsonic speeds before parachutes or air brakes may be deployed, such vehicles have kinetic energies typically between 50 and MJoules, and atmospheric dissipation is the only way of expending the kinetic energy.
While the high temperature generated at the surface of the shield is due to adiabatic compression. Other smaller energy losses include black body radiation directly from the hot gasses, ballistic warheads and expendable vehicles do not require slowing at re-entry, and in fact, are made streamlined so as to maintain their speed. Uncontrolled, objects accelerate through the atmosphere at extreme velocities under the influence of Earths gravity, most controlled objects enter at hypersonic speeds due to their suborbital, orbital, or unbounded trajectories. Various advanced technologies have developed to enable atmospheric reentry and flight at extreme velocities.
Practical development of systems began as the range and reentry velocity of ballistic missiles increased. For early short-range missiles, like the V-2, stabilization and aerodynamic stress were important issues, medium-range missiles like the Soviet R-5, with a km range, required ceramic composite heat shielding on separable reentry vehicles.
The first ICBMs, with ranges of to 12, km, were possible with the development of modern ablative heat shields. In the U. Julian Allen at Ames Research Center, over the decades since the s, a rich technical jargon has grown around the engineering of vehicles designed to enter planetary atmospheres. It is recommended that the review the jargon glossary before continuing with this article on atmospheric reentry. When atmospheric entry is part of a landing or recovery, particularly on a planetary body other than Earth, entry is part of a phase referred to as entry, descent and landing.
When the atmospheric entry returns to the body that the vehicle had launched from. These four shadowgraph images represent early reentry-vehicle concepts, if the reentry vehicle is made blunt, air cannot get out of the way quickly enough, and acts as an air cushion to push the shock wave and heated shock layer forward. Since most of the hot gases are no longer in contact with the vehicle. The Allen and Eggers discovery, though initially treated as a secret, was eventually published in Submarine — A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability, the term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine.
The noun submarine evolved as a form of submarine boat, by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than as ships. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, Submarines were first widely used during World War I, and now figure in many navies large and small.
Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage, exploration and facility inspection, Submarines can also be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are also used in tourism, and for undersea archaeology, most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the sail in American usage, a conning tower was a feature of earlier designs, a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes.
There is a propeller at the rear, and various hydrodynamic control fins, smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and also change the amount of water, Submarines have one of the widest ranges of types and capabilities of any vessel. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers, modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. In , the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle and its unclear whether he ever carried out his idea.
The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in by Cornelis Drebbel and it was propelled by means of oars. His design used leather bags that could fill with water to submerge the craft, a mechanism was used to twist the water out of the bags and cause the boat to resurface. In , the Gentlemens Magazine reported that a design had initially been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in By this point of development, further improvement in design stagnated for over a century, until new industrial technologies for propulsion.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person and it was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion. Global warming — Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earths climate system and its related effects.
Multiple lines of evidence show that the climate system is warming. The largest human influence has been emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane. These findings have been recognized by the science academies of the major industrialized nations and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing.
Future climate change and associated impacts will differ from region to region around the globe, anticipated effects include warming global temperature, rising sea levels, changing precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Warming is expected to be greater over land than over the oceans and greatest in the Arctic, with the retreat of glaciers, permafrost. Effects significant to humans include the threat to security from decreasing crop yields.
Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, building systems resilient to its effects, most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. There are significant regional differences, with Americans and Chinese among the least concerned, the global average surface temperature shows a warming of 0. Earths average surface temperature rose by 0. The rest has melted ice and warmed the continents and atmosphere, the average temperature of the lower troposphere has increased between 0.
The warming that is evident in the temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations. The probability that these changes could have occurred by chance is virtually zero, temperature changes vary over the globe. Since , land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as ocean temperatures, ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean loses more heat by evaporation.
Since the beginning of industrialisation the temperature difference between the hemispheres has increased due to melting of sea ice and snow in the North. Average arctic temperatures have been increasing at almost twice the rate of the rest of the world in the past years, the thermal inertia of the oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that climate can take centuries or longer to adjust to changes in forcing.
Some of this warming will be driven by past natural forcings which are still seeking equilibrium in the climate system. Factory — Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, and fewer than a dozen workers have been called glorified workshops, most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production.
Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail, highway, factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals, pulp and paper, or refined oil products. Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors, discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere.
Factories may be supplied parts from elsewhere or make them from raw materials, continuous production industries typically use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products. The term mill originally referred to the milling of grain, which usually used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century.
Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, and paper manufacturing were originally powered by water, according to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of , states the largest factory production in ancient times was of slaves within 4th century BC Athens, although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states, a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere. The wheel was invented circa BC, the spoked wheel c. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production, according to one text the water-mill was first made in A.
By the time of the 4th century A. Founded in in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, the Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16, people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombes water-powered silk mill at Derby, by , an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol.
Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, the factory system began widespread use somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanized.
Richard Arkwright is the credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in , he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, England, the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the development of machines which were too large to house in a workers cottage.
Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, overall, this practice essentially reduced skilled and unskilled workers to replaceable commodities. Oil refinery — Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, the crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant.
There is usually an oil depot at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products, an oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry. The lighter elements, however, form explosive vapors in the tanks and are therefore hazardous. Petroleum fossil fuels are burned in internal combustion engines to power for ships, automobiles, aircraft engines, lawn mowers, dirt bikes. Different boiling points allow the hydrocarbons to be separated by distillation, Oil can be used in a variety of ways because it contains hydrocarbons of varying molecular masses, forms and lengths such as paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes, alkenes, dienes, and alkynes.
Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without further processing, smaller molecules such as isobutane and propylene or butylenes can be recombined to meet specific octane requirements by processes such as alkylation, or more commonly, dimerization. The octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic reforming, the final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings, vapor pressures, and other properties to meet product specifications.
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Another method for reprocessing and upgrading these intermediate products uses a process to separate usable oil from the waste asphaltene material. Oil refineries are large plants, processing about a hundred thousand to several hundred thousand barrels of crude oil a day. Because of the capacity, many of the units operate continuously, as opposed to processing in batches.
The high capacity also makes process optimization and advanced process control very desirable, petroleum products are usually grouped into four categories, light distillates, middle distillates, heavy distillates and residuum.
This classification is based on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions as in the above drawing and these are not usually transported but instead are blended or processed further on-site. Chemical plants are often adjacent to oil refineries or a number of further chemical processes are integrated into it. For example, light hydrocarbons are steam-cracked in a plant.
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Using the Claus process, hydrogen sulfide is afterwards transformed to elementary sulfur to be sold to the chemical industry, the rather large heat energy freed by this process is directly used in the other parts of the refinery. Often an electrical plant is combined into the whole refinery process to take up the excess heat.
Desalter unit washes out salt from the oil before it enters the atmospheric distillation unit. Nuclear reactor — This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power.
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A nuclear reactor, formerly known as a pile, is a device used to initiate. Nuclear reactors are used at power plants for electricity generation. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a fluid, which runs through steam turbines. These either drive a ships propellers or turn electrical generators, Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, some are run only for research. As of April , the IAEA reports there are nuclear power reactors in operation, when a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium or plutonium absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission.
The heavy nucleus splits into two or more nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation, and free neutrons. A portion of neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons. This is known as a chain reaction. To control such a chain reaction, neutron poisons and neutron moderators can change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fission.
Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if monitoring detects unsafe conditions, commonly-used moderators include regular water, solid graphite and heavy water. Some experimental types of reactor have used beryllium, and hydrocarbons have been suggested as another possibility, the reactor core generates heat in a number of ways, The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms.
The reactor absorbs some of the rays produced during fission. Heat is produced by the decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat-source will remain for some even after the reactor is shut down. A kilogram of uranium converted via nuclear processes releases approximately three times more energy than a kilogram of coal burned conventionally. A nuclear reactor coolant — usually water but sometimes a gas or a metal or molten salt — is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. GameSpot PC Games p. CNET Networks. Retrieved Archived from the original on March 5, Computer Gaming World Civilization series. A New Dawn. Rome Sid Meier's Starships. Music " Baba Yetu ". List of media. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references Articles using Infobox video game using locally defined parameters Articles using Wikidata infoboxes with locally defined images All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Torvalds has also stated that if BSD had been available at the time, although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2.
Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history 5. We may have people making habitats on asteroids, I know that humans will colonize the solar system and one day go beyond 6.
The Allen and Eggers discovery, though initially treated as a secret, was eventually published in 8. The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person and it was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion 9. Some of this warming will be driven by past natural forcings which are still seeking equilibrium in the climate system Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, overall, this practice essentially reduced skilled and unskilled workers to replaceable commodities Desalter unit washes out salt from the oil before it enters the atmospheric distillation unit YouTube Videos.
Linus Torvalds , principal author of the Linux kernel. Nexus 5X running Android. In flight entertainment system booting up showing the Linux logo. Children being taught how to use a notebook personal computer; a desktop personal computer 's CRT monitor , keyboard , and mouse are visible in the background.